Medicine on Mars will be carried out first as an element of crew work, and eventually through a health care system for the settlements.
A large part of the work done over the year on the International Space Station (ISS) has been on the medical challenges of space travel. Some of this work may be adaptable to Mars; but Mars has its own specific medical challenges.
The special challenges of medicine on Mars might be:
- Low gravity adaptation, such as child bearing and the effect of low gravity on development
- Radiation mitigation
- Perchlorate poisoning
- Mental health
- Isolation, disease resistance
Wikipedia article on medicine.
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